Archive for the ‘ Research ’ Category

057: Research: Eye Test

After presenting my symposium v.02 last week, I got suggested to look more about types layout and words. I’ve been thinking about playing with sentences and words using spaces. Which I found this idea familiars to the eye test plate. I think it’s very cool idea because each type would force out eyes to read and try to gather what it says. So my types might look meaningless but each piece contain a meaningful sentence.

Here are some images I found on internet:

I also have done all layouts for my project which I’ll show you guys on the next post 馃檪



052: Choosing materials

As I was thinking about applying ‘dynamic surface’ to my final show on the previous post, I have to do a research on materials and what suits the best with projection. As I can’t use a pure glass because projection would go through it and it wouldn’t reflect anything back. I have to choose something which is be able to reflect back, and yet still see through.

I found this test video on projection test on glossy paper and acetate. It’s very useful and I’m gonna test it myself soon.

As the practitioner said in his blog:

During last days, at Laboratori Ligabue, while testing frontal and retro-projection on a plexiglass surface, me and my teammates have found many interesting things:

  1. You can’t get a good projection on pure glass because its聽low reflecting coefficient and聽high refractive index just make the incoming light beams deviate and not coming back. So you must use some kind of聽translucent layer to fix an image on the surface, that’s why we tested it on聽glossy paper and on聽vynil acetate to see where we had the best result;
  2. Glossy paper is good, has slightly more brightness and it’s far more available and economic than acetate;
  3. Glossy paper gives a聽frosty-glass look, and its a bit less bright than glossy paper, but it’s far more resistant.


045: Tools and Projection Concept

I finally came across a tool to manipulate the images and screen for final show. The tool to be used in this project is inspired by聽Karlklomp website. He provides this video mixer which I think it’s quite interesting and can be used to manipulate my font layouts before projection.

As it is said in Karlklomp:

Dirt & Cheap Non-Sync Video Mixer.聽Just one potentiometer and some connectors and you have your self a video mixer. Well, not really sync but its mixing, haha. Simple and dirty. If you leave the knob in the middle the signal it losses sync on the output. Now, you could change the switches into push buttons and have yourself a simpler switcher. It isn’t gritch free but it doens’t need any power or parts.

I made two switches onit so you can change input 1 and 2 to the other side of the knob. Its also there to have the option for normal image. If you leave the two signals on the pot it will be slidly visual as a vertical rolling image. For this you need a 1 k ohm potentiometer, 3 RCA connectors, 2 switches (SPDT) and a enclosure. Connect the inputs to both switches, one input to each switch. Connect the output of the switches to the side pins of the pot and the middle is your video out.


Example result from the mixer

This technique is quite easy to experiment and tools are not expensive and not hard to find. I guess I can find them in Maplin. Thanks to JB for helping me out 馃檪

Anyway, I did a diagram to show how it work with my layout. First I need to do font and screen layout then separate it into single still image, and burn onto DVD. They will be played on dvd players, through the mixers before projected on screen. These mixers will produce imperfect and glitch images. This idea is kinda playing with input/output in technology.

An outcome image, which is imperfect (corrupted/breakdown/glitch..depend on how mixer does it) will be projected in the middle screen, between two prints. To show the contrast in digital media and print media.

Each sentence will be spread out on 3 layouts, 2 are in prints and 1 in the middle is in digital (projection). Now I have to think about how big each one is going to be and how many sentences there are.

040: Tutorial with Andy

Sorry for lacking of updates. I had tutorial with Andy last week and it went well, as in we discussed about problems and alternate solutions which help me out with the project a lot. Lately, I’ve been reading and working on my research paper. But I just wanna post this note before getting back on research paper. It’s just a note on the tutorial with Andy.

The thing is, I’m stuck with the question ‘Where can I find malfunction projectors?’. Because first of all, I don’t want to do ‘fake’ malfunction on computer. My idea is about pure imperfection so I want it to be naturally imperfect. So I talked to Andy and he suggested that I can try..

– Central Store: to rent some broken projectors. But they might not allow me to because they might be scared I might make them worse.

– Ebay and second hand shops

– Play with input/output: not just relay to projectors. He suggested me to look at computer breakdown itself. Look at fonts/break apart/ screen.

Research on inherent between malfunction of things you can show/angles. Try to play around and find ways and how they break apart. This idea is purely based on accident.

On projector corrupting itself/ outputting something that makes projectors struggle to work.

Or play with lens?

The most important thing I have to ask myself ..

Where the malfunction happens?

Is it..

Inherent of projector: so what’s next? is this enough?


Manipulating the objects: how can I play with it when the light is projected? Look at the ideas of surfaces eg. water, prism(rainbow), curtain, curve, mirror surfaces.

I think I’m more into the second one because it allows me to play and explore more with the imperfection idea.

Another thing I need to look at is the idea of different mediums in installation. I was told to try different mediums in three screens such as paper, projector, then paper. Also experiment with TV/old fashioned TV (instead of projector, this is an alternate solution if I can’t find corrupted projector) by playing around with its low quality screen and magnets. Andy also told me to look at Nam June Paik, the artist who has explored about this idea.

Also I can contact Epsom (or BenQ), telling them about my project and see if I can borrow some projectors. Looking at what program can be altered to corrupt images (projectors). Codes? Board? or even hacking projectors?


Idea of corruption:

What is it I want to explore?

Showing the contrast as above is interesting because types on paper/print are believed to be fixed and perfect. But in digital, they are all depended on mediums. This shows the different relationship between forms, types, print, and projectors. I have to re-firm the relationship wether it’s inherent or manipulate.

What kinds of corruption?

Think about surfaces/ environment/ mappings





** Differences between printed and projected typography **

024: Jenny Holzer

I found some book on this artist, Jenny Holzer. I find her works quite interesting in terms of presenting and projecting sentences, types in different ways. My favorite ones have to be ones that are projected on building, trees, glasses, and water. Which are actually interesting to see how surfaces/environments can affect the meaning/typographic visual.

I’ll post more about her because I think it’s very useful for my project.

023: Updating/Word Definitions

Hi there, sorry for lacks of posting. After handed, presented, and received comments from proposal, I’ve been giving myself a bit of time to relax and research more on my project. I’ve also found some more interesting artists and I’ll post about them next posts.

Anyway, I was suggested to look at definition of words and they might help me to narrow my ideas down a bit. So I’d just joint them down here and keep updating them when I find more.


Imperfect :


1. of, pertaining to, or characterized by defects or weaknesses:imperfect vision.
2. not perfect; lacking completeness:聽imperfect knowledge.


  1. Not perfect.
  2. Grammar Of or being the tense of a verb that shows, usually in the past, an action or a condition as incomplete, continuous, or coincident with another action.





1. a breaking down, wearing out, or sudden loss of ability to function efficiently, as of a machine.
2. a loss of mental or physical health; collapse.聽Comparenervous breakdown.
3. an analysis or classification of something; division into parts, categories, processes, etc.



    1. The act or process of failing to function or continue.
    2. The condition resulting from this:聽a breakdown in communication.


  2. Electricity The abrupt failure of an insulator or insulating medium to restrict the flow of current.
  3. A typically sudden collapse in physical or mental health.
  4. An analysis, an outline, or a summary consisting of itemized data or essentials.
  5. Disintegration or decomposition into parts or elements.
  6. A noisy, energetic American country dance.




1. failure to function properly:聽a malfunction of the liver; the malfunction of a rocket.


  1. To fail to function.
  2. To function improperly.


  1. Failure to function.
  2. Faulty or abnormal functioning.



鈥搗erb (used with object), verb (used without object),聽-lat鈰卐d,-lat鈰卛ng.

to translate incorrectly.


Glitch (*this is the technique I want to focus on):


  1. A minor malfunction, mishap, or technical problem; a snag:聽a computer glitch; a navigational glitch; a glitch in the negotiations.
  2. A false or spurious electronic signal caused by a brief, unwanted surge of electric power.
  3. Astronomy A sudden change in the period of rotation of a neutron star.


    Word History: Although聽glitch seems a word that people would always have found useful, it is first recorded in English in 1962 in the writing of John Glenn:聽“Another term we adopted to describe some of our problems was ‘glitch.’ “ Glenn then gives the technical sense of the word the astronauts had adopted:聽“Literally, a glitch is a spike or change in voltage in an electrical current.” It is easy to see why the astronauts, who were engaged in a highly technical endeavor, might have generalized a term from electronics to cover other technical problems. Since then聽glitch has passed beyond technical use and now covers a wide variety of malfunctions and mishaps.


    Computing Dictionary

    /glich/ [German “glitschen” to slip, via Yiddish “glitshen”, to slide or skid] 1. (Electronics) When the inputs of a circuit change, and the outputs change to some聽random value for some very brief time before they settle down to the correct value. If another circuit inspects the output at just the wrong time, reading the random value, the results can be very wrong and very hard to debug (a glitch is one of many causes of electronic聽heisenbugs).
    2. A sudden interruption in electric service, sanity, continuity, or program function. Sometimes recoverable. An interruption in electric service is specifically called a “power glitch” (or聽power hit), of grave concern because it usually crashes all the computers. See also聽gritch.
    2. [Stanford] To scroll a display screen, especially several lines at a time.聽WAITS terminals used to do this in order to avoid continuous scrolling, which is distracting to the eye.
    4. Obsolete. Same as聽magic cookie.
    [The Jargon File]




007 : Text in Film

I have been reading the book called Type in Motion : Innovations in Digital Graphics and found out that there are a lot of typography uses in film, especially in title sequences. Here are some example:

Catch Me If You Can


Casino Royale

Thank You For Smoking

Kiss Kiss Bang Bang